Visions of a Future Gift Economy
Cory Doctorow's recent novel Walkaway imagines a world where scarcity is unnecessary and generosity is a feasible way of life.
When you take a mountaintop view that lets all the gritty details blur into insignificance, most of our political arguments come down to two visions of how an economy might function. We might have a capitalist market economy, where good things are scarce and people compete to obtain them (and possibly fail to obtain necessities like food or medical care). Or we might have a socialist command economy, where central planners figure out how the work all of us do is going to produce the goods and services all of us need.
Our current economy is a blend of the two — a mostly capitalist economy sitting over a socialist safety net that is maintained by a tax-supported central government — and our endless political debates are about where the capitalist/socialist boundary should be. Do we want higher taxes and a sturdier safety net, or lower taxes and a flimsier safety net?
There is, however, a completely different third vision, which for most of human history has sounded kind of crazy: an anarchist gift economy, in which people compete not to obtain scarce goods, but to give the most impressive gifts.
Christmas dinner. Gift economies already exist in little niches, on very small scales. For example: the pot-luck family Christmas dinners I remember from when I was growing up. If you approached the dinner like the homo economicus of capitalist theory, you'd bring the minimal dish to get yourself in the door, and then pig out on what everybody else brought. The obvious result, as any economist could predict, would be a tragedy of the commons: Everybody would bring less and less as the years went by, until Christmas became a celebration of scarcity rather than abundance.
If such an outcome didn't kill Christmas entirely, it would probably lead to a socialist revolution: A central planning committee would make sure we all got enough to eat by telling everyone exactly what to bring, specifying quantity and quality very precisely, and checking that no one cheated. So food would be plentiful again, but even so, the joy of the season might get lost.
In fact, though, neither of those things ever happened. Instead, my aunts competed with each other to bring the most appealing dishes, probably secretly hoping that everybody would eat their food first and only eventually get around to sampling what the other aunts brought. The way you won Christmas wasn't to get the best deal for your household, it was to give the best gift. As a result, the common table was anything but tragic; we all stuffed ourselves and there was plenty left over.
Sweat and scale. Critics will ask how that example scales up, and they'll have a point. The general human condition was laid out thousands of years ago in Genesis: "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread." Ever since we got kicked out of Eden, good things have required work, and work has been disagreeable. Christmas dinners are one thing, but in general nobody's going to do the world's work voluntarily, just so other people can have nice stuff.
Imagine, for example, being a New York gentleman shopping for a shirt around 1850 or so: The raw cotton has come from slaves working under the lash, and has been turned into thread and cloth and finally a shirt in factories where teen-age Irish immigrant girls get respiratory diseases from breathing the lint spewed out by the big machines. None of them would have put themselves through that just to give you a shirt.
And yet, as technology hands more and more of the economy's grunt work off to machines, gift-economy niches are expanding, especially in any area that involves information or the internet. Wikipedia is a darn good encyclopedia. Linux is a top-notch operating system. They both required huge amounts of human effort to create, but they're gifts; they exist (and are continuously updated) because people want to make themselves useful, even if they're not paid for it. 
Facebook and other social-media platforms are a fascinating hybrid of economic models: Mark Zuckerberg got fabulously wealthy by putting a capitalist interface around a gift economy. Nobody (other than maybe a few of his personal friends) uses Facebook because they want to interact with Zuckerberg. We use it to see the interesting, clever, and entertaining things other people post for free. Like my aunts at Christmas, we compete with each other to provide more and better free content. The ads that have made Mark a zillionaire are the friction that we tolerate for the chance to give and receive each other's gifts.
Goods and services. Still, Linux-programming nerds are a special case, and a real economy is more than just clever tweets or cute cat videos. What about services that require time and effort here and now? Will people provide that for free?
Yeah, they will. Look at retired people, especially professionals who did something more interesting than purely physical labor. Often they keep doing similar work on a smaller scale for nothing. Retired public school teachers teach art classes at the community center, or mentor at-risk students one-on-one. Retired business executives give free advice to small start-ups. Retired doctors and nurses help out at free neighborhood clinics, or go off to disaster areas like Haiti after the earthquake or Puerto Rico after the hurricane.
When you ask such people why they stopped working for pay, the answer usually isn't that they wanted to do nothing; it's that the jobs available were too exhausting and constraining. The workplace wanted too much out of them, or left too little room for the parts of the job they most enjoyed. Young people describe the same situation from the opposite side: It's not hard for them to think of ways to use their talents to help people and make stuff, or even for them to get excited about doing so. What's difficult is figuring out how to get paid for it.
Anyone involved with a volunteer organization knows that people will even step up to do physical labor as long as there's not too much of it. If you require long hours of drudgery day after day, you'll have to pay somebody. But if you want a bunch of people to paint the new school or clean out the church basement, you can usually get that done by volunteers. If not for the thought that some big corporation would be making money off of us, I could imagine people volunteering to help at UPS during the holidays, as long as we could do it on our own terms. "Hey, I'm not doing anything Tuesday. You want to go deliver some Christmas presents?"
Material goods. OK, but what about real stuff? Physical things are different from information or services.
But not as different as they used to be. 3D printing is still in its infancy, but it looks like a bridge between the information-wants-to-be-free world of the internet and the sweat-of-thy-face world of physical objects. Most of what you can make now falls under the broad heading of "cheap plastic crap", but you only have to squint a little bit to see future printers that are more like general fabricators: They'll use a greater variety of materials, and weave them together on smaller and smaller scales, until we have something approaching the replicators of Star Trek.
In the future, you might acquire a shirt by getting your torso scanned, choosing from a set of designs somebody posted free to the internet, and having your general-purpose home fabricator assemble the shirt molecule-by-molecule, using one or two of your worn-out shirts as raw material. No slaves. No wheezing red-haired girls. Just energy (which you might have gotten free from the wind or sun), computing power (so cheap that it's barely worth accounting for), and gifts from other people.
It's a stretch, but you can imagine even food working that way eventually: Get some organic molecules by throwing your grass clippings into the fabricator, and take out a beef stroganoff — or maybe at least some edible substance that is tasty and nutritious. In the meantime, people love to garden or raise chickens or tend bees. A lot of them happily give their surplus away. At the moment, that's not nearly enough to feed the world. But such small-scale producers might come a lot closer if they didn't need to have jobs or sell their produce for money. If you needed traditional food merely as a garnish, and got your basic nutrition elsewhere, the gift culture might provide it.
In short, some desirable things — beachfront homes, original copies of Action #1— might always be scarce and remain part of a market economy. But it's possible to imagine the market and gift economies switching places: Markets might become niches, as gift economies are now.
Capitalism and the surplus population. Compare the gift economy's trends to what technology is doing to the capitalist economy. Picture a capitalist economy as a set of concentric circles: The innermost one consists of the relatively small number of people who increasingly own everything. They can afford to get whatever they want, so there has to be a next circle out, consisting of the people who produce goods and services for the rich: food and clothing, obviously, but also yacht designers, heart specialists, estate planners, physical trainers, teachers for their kids, bodyguards, and so on.
It takes a lot of people to provision a single oligarch, but if the central circle is small enough, the next one out will still be just a fraction of the general population. Those second-circle people may not be rich like the central circle, but they will need to be paid enough to buy a number of the things they want. So a third, even larger circle of people becomes necessary to produce goods and services for them.
And so on.
It would be pleasant to imagine that these circles expand forever, each new circle spreading the wealth to the next circle out, until everybody can be paid to do some useful work. But as the inner circle gets smaller and smaller, and as more and more work is done by machines, probably the process ends long before it includes everybody. So you wind up with a final outer circle of surplus population: people the economy has no real use for. It's not that they have no skills or don't want to work or have some moral failing that makes them unemployable. It's just math. The people with money can get everything they want without employing everybody, so a lot of other people wind up as ballast. 
If you're a bleeding-heart type, you might get sentimental about those surplus people. But put yourself in the shoes of an oligarch: The prevailing moral code won't tolerate just letting the extra people starve, so somebody has to maintain them through either charity or taxes, even though they're entirely useless. Imagine how you must resent all those parasites, who have no connection to your productive economy, but still want to be supported by it! 
Now we're in the world of Cory Doctorow's Walkaway.
Walkaway. The novel takes place in the late 21st and early 22nd centuries, by which time several of the trends we can see now have gone much further. Large numbers of people compete for a relatively small number of jobs, and the people who get those jobs are increasingly desperate to keep them. If you weren't born rich, getting enough training to compete for the good jobs involves taking on debts that you may never get a good enough job to pay off. The economy has contracted around a few major economic centers, leaving large sections of the U.S. and Canada virtually empty.
Increasing numbers of people who get fed up with this situation "go walkaway": They set out for the empty areas, hoping to find a way to make a life for themselves outside the "default culture", which the Walkaways come to call Default. Fortuitously, the UN has responded to a variety of refugee crises over the decades by developing technologies that make it easy to establish settlements quickly: cheap wind and solar generators, small fabricators you can use to make bigger fabricators, shelter designs that don't require skilled construction, and so on. Computing power and internet connectivity are easy to set up, and from there you can get whatever expert advice you need from professionals who find their Default jobs unfulfilling.
Walkaway settlements display that unique combination of order and anarchy you may recognize if you've spent any time at Burning Man or an Occupy encampment or working on an open-source project. There are elaborate social processes aiming at consensus, but if you can't resolve a conflict you walk away from it: Take a copy of the source code and go create your own version of Linux if you want; maybe other programmers and users will come to like your vision better, or maybe not.
The Walkaway lifestyle is a mixture of hardship and abundance. The prevailing aesthetic is minimalistic, but everything you actually need is freely available. If somebody really wants your stuff, let them have it and go fabricate new stuff. If a group of assholes shows up and wants to take over the settlement, walk away and build a new settlement.
Doctorow's most interesting insights involve the values implied by Default and Walkaway. Default is based on scarcity, and a person's claim on scarce goods revolves around having special merit.  So everyone in Default is constantly striving to be special, to convince themselves that they're special, and to prove their specialness to others. The hardest thing to adjust to in Walkaway is that you're not special; you're like everybody else. But that's OK, because everybody deserves a chance to live and be happy.
Without spoiling anything, I can tell you that three things drive the plot:
- An oligarch's daughter goes walkaway, and he wants to reclaim and deprogram her.
- Researchers at "Walkaway U" (a loose collection of scientists who mainly need computing power and don't want their research controlled by oligarchs) solve the problem of simulating brains and uploading a person's consciousness into software, thereby creating a version of immortality. Not only do the oligarchs want this technology — that would be easy, since nobody is keeping it from them — they want it to be expensive intellectual property that only they can afford to use.
- Default culture is starting to fall apart, as more and more of the people it relies on stop believing in it. 
Default had tried to ignore Walkaway, and then to smear it as a dangerous place full of rejects and criminals.  But the plot-drivers cause Default to start seeing Walkaway as a threat.
Reflections on scarcity. One thing I take away from the novel is to be more skeptical of scarcity. Systems tend to justify themselves, so it's not surprising that a system based on managing scarcity would concoct ways to create unnecessary scarcity. Much of our current culture, I think, revolves around making us want things that only a few people can have.  The vast majority that fails to acquire these things are defined as losers, and they/we deserve whatever bitter result they/we get.
Ditto for the idea that work is disagreeable. Maybe we're making work disagreeable. Because good jobs are scarce, employers can demand a lot and treat workers badly. If, instead, we could fully engage everybody's talents and energies, maybe the work we each needed to do wouldn't be that demanding. We might even enjoy it.
So I'm left with a series of provocative questions: What if scarcity isn't the fundamental principle of economics any more, or won't be at some point in the near-to-middle future? What if God's post-Eden curse — "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread" — came with a time limit? What if our sentence is up?
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 Once this process gets started, a vicious cycle makes it worse: The larger the surplus population, and the more capable people it contains, the more competition there is for the available jobs. This drives down wages, and shrinks all the circles further. For example: The less the second circle gets paid, the fewer goods and services it can command. Consequently, the third circle doesn't have to be as big. And so on.
 In case you're struggling to put words around the flaw in this way of thinking, I already did: The mistake is the assumption that the oligarchs own the world, and that a baby born into poverty has no claim on either the natural productivity of the planet or the human heritage that created technological society. The oligarchs assume they are the sole rightful heirs both of the Creator and of all previous generations of inventors.
 Characters in the novel dispose of the "meritocracy" view of capitalist society very quickly: The view is based on circular logic, because "merit" is defined by whatever the system rewards. So Donald Trump is on top because he has merit, but the only observable evidence of his merit is the fact that he's on top.
 The collapse of Soviet Communism is probably a model here. The Soviet system maintained the appearance of vast power right up to the last minute. When people respect you mainly for your power, the first signs of weakness quickly snowball.
 Recall the mainstream reaction to Occupy Wall Street.
 The archetypal example of this is the the Prize in Highlander: "In the end there can be only one." Reality TV tells us this story over and over: The Bachelor will pick only one woman. Only one performer will become the next American Idol. And so on.